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The line of client software applications "Coaching Toolkit"

The team of the Physiological Avatar project presents a line of client software applications named Coaching Toolkit for athletes and trainers of cyclic sports.

What are the goals?

One of the most important conditions for the successful implementation of sports training is its optimal planning as a process in time. Planning sports training is the definition of the conditions, means and methods for solving problems that are put in front of the process of sports training, prediction of sports results to be achieved by an athlete.

Optimally plan the training of an athlete - this means, based on the analysis of the characteristics of this athlete, to outline the main indicators in the training process and distribute them over time. Planning the training process can be divided into the following forms: perspective (perennial), current (within a year or one sports season), operational (within one or several training exercises).

The main goal of developing the line of applications named Coaching Toolkit for the project team is to provide the user with an effective software tool for optimal current planning of the training process in cyclic sports and fitness.

What do popular sports gadgets and software applications give and what don't?

The development of computer technology makes it possible to take a fresh look at the extent to which modern gadgets and Internet resources are used in training activities. In the field of sports, these new technologies help in organizing the training process. Most companies that produce sports gadgets, at the same time provide an opportunity to analyze the training process and create appropriate online resources. Such resources have the necessary information support and to some extent allow to program the parameters of the training process. With their help, it became possible to automate many data processing processes of the training process, such as:

  • Training and control of theoretical knowledge.
  • Preparation and processing of the results of competitions in various sports.
  • Control and optimization of sports movements.
  • Control of the functional state of the athlete.
  • Creation of computerized training complexes.

However, to control the parameters of the training process in the generally accepted sense of the mathematical theory of optimal control, these computer systems do not allow, providing only the possibility of analyzing the effectiveness of the already completed part of the training process. The tasks of synthesizing the optimal parameters of perspective and current planning, such as, for example, laying the athlete’s functional state to the maximum for a certain competitive period, cannot be solved by these systems.

There are two main reasons for this. First, the proposed system of optimal planning of the training process must necessarily be based on an adequate mathematical model of the basic physiological systems of the human body. Secondly, this mathematical model must also be individualized, i.e. to the maximum extent correspond to the physiological parameters of the body of a particular athlete The same conditions are also the reasons for the practical uselessness of using popular sports trackers in the training process. In the professional community, it is widely believed that sports trackers are so much mistaken in measuring physiological parameters due to taking into account an incomplete amount of data (height, weight, age, and many other individual indicators) that the practical use of these parameters becomes meaningless.

Alternative or supplement?

The team of Physiological Avatar project offers software solutions that can be an alternative to traditional popular sports trackers, and an effective addition to them, providing new previously unattainable opportunities. The physiological avatar technology will help eliminate some of the shortcomings inherent in popular sports trackers. The physiological avatar technology is designed to solve two main tasks:

  • Build a mathematical model of the basic physiological systems of the human body, focused on solving the theoretical and practical problems
  • To bring the adequacy of the mathematical model to the level of an individual using the process of parametric identification according to observations of physiological variables.

The main task, which is solved in the applications of the Coaching Toolkit line, is the task of planning the training process as a classic optimal control problem. For the correct formulation of this problem and its subsequent solution, several subtasks of a theoretical and practical nature have been previously solved. At the same time, we use the term “quantification”, which has become widely used in sports science, to denote a numerical evaluation, a translation into the numerical form of any indicators of the sports process.

So what do we offer?

  • We offer a way to measure and quantify the training stimulus that occurs during the training load. Currently, the most popular method is the method of calculating the so-called training impulses (TRIMP).
  • We propose a method of quantifying indicators for assessing the quality of the training process - the level of development of the trained quality (target quality) or the sports result itself.
  • We offer an adequate mathematical model of the influence of the training stimulus on the quality indicators of the training process and, ultimately, on the athletic performance. Individualization of the model is made on the basis of measuring the current input (training impulses) and output (sports results) data.
  • We offer a software implementation of the solution of the task of the current planning of the training process in the form of a classical optimal control problem in discrete time, we formulate possible control objectives and constraints on the controls and states.


Sport Fitness
Coaching Toolkit for kayaking and canoeing free
Coaching Toolkit for cyclical sports free

Target user audience

All client applications of the Coaching Toolkit line provide for two models of use: a collective use model (coaches, mentors, fitness managers) and an individual model (professional athletes, fitness enthusiasts).

  • Сoaches

    The coaching model for using the application involves creating a coach account and creating one or more athletes ’accounts - members of the team that this coach controls.

  • Athletes

    Personal application usage model involves the creation of a coach account and the creation of a single athlete account. In this case, the application implements the paradigm "Myself trainer." The coach and the athlete act in one person.

Recommended references

A. P. Proshin and Yu. V. Solodyannikov. Physiological Avatar Technology with Optimal Planning of the Training Process in Cyclic Sports // Automation and Remote Control, Vol. 79, No. 5, 2018, pp. 860-873.

This work is devoted to the theoretical justification of a software and technological product that combines latest achievements in the field of mathematical computer modeling, sports physiology, and medicine. We present a review of theoretical foundations and practical solutions of the latest software and technological developments in the field of control over the training process in cyclic sports. We propose a new integrated approach to the training process planning, which combines known technology of the training impulse and a method for modeling individual physiological properties of the athlete’s body on the basis of the physiological avatar technology.

A. P. Proshin and Yu. V. Solodyannikov. Mathematical modeling of lactate metabolism with applications to sports // Automation and Remote Control, Vol. 74, No. 6, 2013, pp. 1004-1019.

Based on a mathematical model of the blood circulatory system, we construct a mathematical model for lactate metabolism in a human body. We pose the identification problem for lactate metabolism parameters by measurements. We develop the method, algorithm, and software for solving this identification problem. We also consider practical applications in sports medicine and the training process, in particular in our studies of the anaerobic threshold phenomenon and propose new methods for estimating the individual anaerobic threshold and maximal oxygen consumption for athletes.

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