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Training Impulse

The most promising area of ​​applied research for the PhA program is to develop advanced features sports training and, in particular, methods and algorithms for optimal planning of the volume of training load based on the concept of training impulse (TRIMP).


Training impulse (TRIMP) is a term coined by Eric Bannister (Eric Banister, 1991), in his research on monitoring training load. Banister TRIMP developed as a method for quantifying training load. TRIMP is determined by the heart rate (HR), blood lactate (La) and exercise duration (T). HR is weighed as the product of fractional elevation in HR to lactate in the blood and is integrated over a time interval workout using the formulas:

In this formula HRmin and HRmax, respectively, the minimum and maximum heart rate.

The main problem in the practical use of the pulse method is the difficulty of the training continuously monitoring blood lactate level La(t) over a time interval training. To resolve this difficulty, still offers a variety of approximate models, depending on the blood lactate heart rate (lactate profile). So, originally developed Banister approach to the measurement of training load, based on average data for the population of athletes, in particular, the weightings reflecting thedependence of the concentration of lactate in the blood from the heart rate (Borresen and Michael Ian, 2009).

The experimentally determined dependence of the individual blood lactate by heart rate is called individual lactate profile. Most current methods for calculating individualized TRIMP involves the construction of individual lactate profile in the course of a step test on a treadmill.

Examples of individual lactate profile obtained during laboratory testing athlete (Manzi et al., 2009)

Implementation in the "Physiological Avatar" technology

Construction of individual lactate profile suggests the presence of a mathematical model, which expresses the dependence of blood lactate is the magnitude of heart rate. Approximation lactate curve possible third-degree polynomial (Cheng et al., 1992; Fabre et al., 2010; Faude et al., 2009; McMorris et al., 2000), or exponential curve


The parameters a and b of this model are identified by the least squares method of measurements obtained by the step test on a treadmill. Individual lactate profile athlete is individualized mathematical model (result of parametric identification), that is, in a sense, a "physiological avatar".

Implementation of the method of training impulse in technology "Physiological avatar" is based on a model of heart rate depending on the intensity of exercise. In this simple model, expressed exponential formula is replaced by a more complex and multi-factor model of the physiological systems of the body.

Advanced features of sports training and in particular, the training load volume control using the monitor pulse training implemented in the client application PhA technology.

Recommended references

A. P. Proshin and Yu. V. Solodyannikov. Mathematical modeling of lactate metabolism with applications to sports // Automation and Remote Control, Vol. 74, No. 6, 2013, pp. 1004-1019.

Based on a mathematical model of the blood circulatory system, we construct a mathematical model for lactate metabolism in a human body. We pose the identification problem for lactate metabolism parameters by measurements. We develop the method, algorithm, and software for solving this identification problem. We also consider practical applications in sports medicine and the training process, in particular in our studies of the anaerobic threshold phenomenon and propose new methods for estimating the individual anaerobic threshold and maximal oxygen consumption for athletes.